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  16. Experts disagree about how to define the U.S. poverty level, but according to the most commonly used government measure, a family of four was considered poor in 2012 if its annual income did not exceed $23,050. http://useconomy.about.com/od/glossary/g/Federal_Poverty_Level.html
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  39. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2011). The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing in Virginia in 2008. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/costs/pdf/counting-it-up/fact-sheet-virginia.pdf on July 20, 2013.
  40. Ibid. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2011). The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing in Virginia in 2008. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/costs/pdf/counting-it-up/fact-sheet-virginia.pdf on July 20, 2013.
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  53. SOURCE: Child Care Development Fund Statistics, table 3.
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  60. Office of Family Health Services, Virginia Department of Health.
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  71. Virginia School Readiness Indicators Initiative. No Time to Waste: Indicators of School Readiness 2004 Data Book, p. 36.
  72. Source: Data Accountability Center, Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, Table C1-1, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc13.asp#partcCC.
  73. USDA FNS website: http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/aboutwic/wicataglance.htm
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  77. LSU/Tulane Early Childhood Policy and Data Center. Early Childhood Risk and Reach in Louisiana. Fall 2012.
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  83. Gayl, Young, and Patterson. See also U.S. Department of Education, “Serving Preschool Children under Title I: Non-Regulatory Guidance.”
  84. Data source: Virginia Department of Education
  85. Rotz, R. B., Bearse, A. W., Rest, G. J., & Sarte, K. M. (2007). Virginia Preschool Initiative (VPI): Current Implementation and Potential Changes, House document No 44. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia. Available at: http://jlarc.virginia.gov/reports/Rpt364.pdf
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  87. Rotz, R. B., Bearse, A. W., Rest, G. J., & Sarte, K. M. (2007). Virginia Preschool Initiative (VPI): Current Implementation and Potential Changes, House Document No 44. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia. Available at: http://jlarc.virginia.gov/reports/Rpt364.pdf
  88. https://pals.virginia.edu/tools-k.html
  89. Invernizzi, M., Juel, C., Swank, L., & Meirr, J. (2013). Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening K Technical Reference. Charlottesville, VA: The Rector and The Board of Visitors of the University of Virginia. https://pals.virginia.edu/pdfs/rd/tech/K Tech Ref 2013_A.pdf.
  90. These numbers exclude children in Fairfax, who are identified using a different screening tool under the EIRI program. Data from Fairfax were not available for this report.
  91. Source: Table 15, Superintendents annual report. Available on the web via http://www.doe.virginia.gov/statistics_reports/supts_annual_report/2011_12/table15.xls
  92. Unpublished analysis of PALS data and retentions, conducted by UVA, 2012.
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  95. More recent research focused on understanding the impact of Florida’s policy requiring retention in grade 3 for students who fail the state reading assessment and do not meet certain other criteria suggests that retention in 3rd grade coupled with intensive intervention may complement other strategies to reduce the number of students reading below grade level. See http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2012/08/16-student-retention-west for a summary; see also Schwerdt & West, 2013, http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG12-09_West.pdf.
  96. Xia, N., & Kirby, S.N., 2009. Retaining students in grade: A literature review of the effects of retention on students’ academic and non-academic outcomes. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
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  99. See retention data, http://www.doe.virginia.gov/statistics_reports/supts_annual_report/index.shtml
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  102. Data are 2010 annual averages for persons age 25 and over. Earnings are for full-time wage and salary workers. Graphic downloaded from: http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm, July 2011.
  103. Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping Out: Why Students Drop Out of School and What Can Be Done About It. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  104. Reynold, A. J., Temple J. A., Robertson, D. L., & Mann, E. A. (2001). Long-term Effects of an Early Childhood Intervention on Educational Achievement and Juvenile Arrest A 15-Year Follow-up of Low-Income Children in Public Schools. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2339-2346.
  105. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, http://www.dropoutprevention.org/effective-strategies/early-childhood-education
  106. 2012 data provided by VDOE. 2006 data from Rotz, R. B., Bearse, A. W., Rest, G. J., & Sarte, K. M. (2007). Virginia Preschool Initiative (VPI): Current Implementation and Potential Changes, House document No 44. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia. Available at: http://jlarc.virginia.gov/reports/Rpt364.pdf.